Modeling invasive activity: Zebra mussels’ infiltration of North American rivers

The invasion of nonnative species has widespread and detrimental effects on local and global ecosystems. These intruders often spread and multiply prolifically, displace native species, alter the intended interactions between flora and fauna, and damage the environment and economy. Scientists now present a continuous-discrete hybrid population model that describes the invasive dynamics of zebra mussels in North American rivers.